Neutrophilia describes a high number of neutrophil granulocytes in blood.
Neutrophils are the primary white blood cells that respond to a bacterial infection, so the most common cause of neutrophilia is a bacterial infection, especially pyogenic infections.
Neutrophils are also increased in any acute inflammation, so will be raised after a heart attack, other infarct or burns.
Some drugs, such as prednisone, have the same effect as cortisol and Adrenaline epinephrine, causing marginated neutrophils to enter the blood stream. Nervousness will very slightly raise the neutrophil count because of this effect.
A neutrophilia might also be the result of a malignancy. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML or chronic myeloid leukaemia) is a disease where the blood cells proliferate out of control. These cells may be neutrophils. Neutrophilia can also be caused by appendicitis and splenectomy.
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