A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or the fascia of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. There are different kinds of hernia, each requiring a specific management or treatment.
A hiatus hernia is the protrusion (or herniation) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm.
An epigastric hernia is a type of hernia which may develop in the epigastrium (upper, central part of the abdomen). Epigastric hernias usually appear in adults.
An incisional hernia is a type of hernia caused by an incompletely-healed surgical wound. Since median incisions in the abdomen are frequent for abdominal exploratory surgery, ventral incisional hernias are termed ventral hernias. These can be among the most difficult hernias to treat.
An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal.
An obturator hernia is a rare type of abdominal wall hernia in which abdominal content protrudes through the obturator foramen. Because of differences in anatomy, it is much more common in women than in men, especially multiparous and older women who have recently lost a lot of weight. The diagnosis is often made intraoperatively after presenting with bowel obstruction. A gynecologist may come across this type of hernias as a secondary finding during gynecological open surgery or laparoscopy. The Howship-Romberg sign is suggestive of an obturator hernia, exacerbated by thigh extension, medial rotation and abduction. It is characterized by lancilating pain in the medial thigh/obturator distribution, extending to the knee; caused by hernia compression of the obturator nerve.
A traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is a type of diaphragmatic hernia which is acquired through an abdominal injury. This is in contrast to a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, which is present from birth. It can occur after splenectomy. Because it can be indicative of severe trauma, it often co-presents with pelvic fracture.
Congenital umbilical hernia is a congenital malformation of the umbilicus. Among adults, it is three times more common in women than in men; among children, the ratio is roughly equal. An acquired umbilical hernia directly results from increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by obesity, heavy lifting, a long history of coughing, or multiple pregnancies. Source: Wikipedia